Deciphering SCIM Complexity: Navigating Group Fragmentation

SCIM protocol implementation variability creates challenges for developers building applications for enterprises. WorkOS has standardized the process of managing group memberships, reducing the potential for inconsistencies and errors, and enhancing security.


Single Sign-On (SSO) and identity management systems play a crucial role in streamlining user access across multiple applications and platforms. However, the widespread adoption of these technologies has led to divergent approaches, particularly for implementing the System for Cross-domain Identity Management (SCIM) protocol. This implementation variability creates challenges for developers building applications for enterprises, as these organizations may be working with a variety of SCIM providers. In this blog post, we will delve into the key challenges that arise from group related SCIM fragmentation, the potential security risks it entails, and WorkOS’ approach to standardizing these inconsistencies for a more cohesive and secure identity management system.

What is fragmentation?

SCIM is an open standard protocol designed to simplify identity management. It offers methods for creating, reading, updating, and deleting user accounts across multiple systems, thereby facilitating seamless integration of identity data between different applications and directories. However, despite the standardization provided by the SCIM protocol, individual providers may interpret and implement the protocol in slightly varied ways or introduce ambiguous scenarios that the protocol does not adequately address.

Such inconsistencies can cause downstream applications to interpret data from different providers inconsistently, suffer from data duplication (resulting in HTTP 409 errors), or even require tailored solutions for specific actions (e.g., having to remove users manually before deleting a group due to a lack of group delete SCIM requests).

Understanding Group Behavior Across SCIM Providers

The concept of "groups" is instrumental for various functions, ranging from role-based access control (RBAC) to user provisioning and deprovisioning, as well as auditing and reporting. Groups serve as logical assemblies of users that are bound together by shared permissions or organizational roles. Ideally, they simplify complex tasks, enabling organizations to easily maintain consistency and security in their identity management strategies. SCIM offers a standardized schema for defining these groups, akin to how it standardizes the representation of individual users. This level of standardization not only streamlines the management of groups but also, in theory, facilitates their synchronization across services and platforms.

However, this is not always the case. When you delete or suspend a user, the inconsistencies among SCIM providers become starkly evident. Some will keep a user as “active” (e.g. if they’re part of a “provisioned group”), others will delete the user, and most will send a SCIM request where the user’s state is no longer active. If this wasn’t challenging enough, in most cases, even after removal or suspension, a user’s memberships may remain mutable, though these changes are not consistently communicated. Here are just some of these group nuances among popular SCIM providers:

  • Okta: Suspends users but doesn’t communicate subsequent changes in group memberships that occur while the user is inactive if the same group is used for assignment and push.
  • Azure: Does not suspend a user if they remain part of any provisioned groups.
  • OneLogin: Deletes users rather than suspending them. If they’re re-added they will be treated as a new user.
  • JumpCloud: Suspends a user only if they are removed from a group they were provisioned through, but won’t provide further details on the suspension.

From IT admin to your application, this creates a divergent sets of information for your application to process:

The Consequences of Inconsistent Group Management

At first glance, the inconsistent behavior for suspended users seems trivial, but these issues are magnified when a user is reactivated, leading to inconsistencies that can have significant implications. The ripple effects of this seemingly minor issue can have far-reaching consequences including:

  • Security Risks: The foremost concern is security. If users remain part of groups that they should no longer have access to, this can potentially expose sensitive data or systems to unauthorized personnel. If your application uses groups for role-based access control (RBAC), this will present a significant security challenge.
  • Billing Inaccuracies: For applications that bill based on group membership, inconsistencies could lead to unwarranted charges, complicating financial management and eroding trust with your enterprise customers.
  • Complexity in Management: The differing behaviors across providers add multiple layers of complexity to an already intricate system. Application developers need to understand, build for, maintain, and extend their identity management solutions to accommodate these inconsistencies, making the process far more convoluted than necessary.
  • Compliance Concerns: Varying statuses and group memberships can hinder adherence to legal regulations and internal policies, especially in sectors that are highly regulated like healthcare or finance.

Acknowledging these significant risks and challenges, it's clear that resolving these inconsistencies isn't merely advantageous but rather indispensable. Ignoring them could trigger a cascade of problems that are complicated, costly, and potentially damaging to your business.

Streamlining Group Management with WorkOS

Traditionally, WorkOS adopted a neutral stance on this issue, simply passing along the data as received from the provider without alteration. This approach placed the responsibility for managing these complexities squarely on our users, and we realized it was time for change. We recognized that this very challenge falls directly within the scope of problems Directory Sync aims to solve. As such, we've shifted our strategy to focus on providing a more unified and secure solution:

When a user is deleted or suspended, we automatically remove them from all associated group memberships.

If the user is later reactivated, it becomes the responsibility of the provider and the IT admin to ensure that the group memberships are updated and accurate. While this may introduce a slight overhead for IT admins, the payoff is a system that's significantly more secure and consistent. As a result, developers using WorkOS can now navigate these challenges more smoothly. They no longer need to juggle multiple flows and can instead manage group memberships more efficiently for all users.


Navigating the complexities of SCIM protocols and inconsistent group behaviors across providers can be a minefield for developers and IT admins alike. The ramifications of these inconsistencies are not limited to technical headaches; they can spiral into significant security, compliance, and financial risks.

At WorkOS, we've pivoted our approach to tackle this issue head-on. Our new feature ensures a more standardized, secure, and simplified management of group memberships. By doing so, we're aiming to remove an unnecessary layer of complexity, enabling developers to focus on what matters most: building great products. As identity management and SSO solutions continue to evolve, it's essential for organizations to remain proactive in addressing these intricacies. With WorkOS by your side, you can steer clear of these stumbling blocks, ensuring a more cohesive, secure, and efficient identity management process.

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